TCP/IP Protocols in the Internet


Server: A software process that provides a service requested by a client.

Client: A software process that requests a service provided by a server.

Server-Client Model: A client initiates a request for a service from a server and the server responds to that request

Protocols: A protocol defines the rules for succesful communication between two devices on a network. The protocol decides signals,  codes and rules for the transmission.

Port: A port is an element added to an address to identify which process to pass data through.

Socket: A sockets is the combination of a port and an ip address.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

These protocols are used together on the internet and are usually found within a four layer protocol stack. Protocols are usually designed in layers, with each layer handling something different, this is called a network protocol stack.

The four layered stack that runs when data is transfered accross the internet is this:

  1. Application Layer: This layer is in charge of encoding the data so that it is in an understandable format for the reciever.
  2. Transport Layer: This layer splits the data into chunks (packets). This layer will also deal with lost packets.
  3. Network Layer: This layer will add the IP address of the recipitent to the packets, it will also deal with the routing of packets (Packet Switching).
  4. Link Layer: This layer will add the mac address of the devices sent too and from to the packets.


Servers are universally known port numbers reserved for specific functions. Below is some of the well known port numbers and the processes their corrosponding servers carry out.

Port  Server
 20 FTP, Data
 21  FTP, Control
80 & 8080  Web Server
 25  SMTP
 100  PoP3
 23 TelNet




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